Fall 2011 Awards

Applying Discourse Semantics and Pragmatics to Narrative Images: A Study of Stone Reliefs, Miniatures, Cave Paintings, and Temple Sculpture
Dorit Abusch, Linguistics

Women, Sustainable Development and Food Sovereignty/Security in a Changing World
Cynthia Bowman, Law

Disentangling the Building from Behavior in Residential Energy Efficiency
Howard Chong, Hotel Administration

Strengthening the Case for Evidence-Based Policy for Development: Contextualized Causal Inference and the Importance of Mechanism
Mark Constas, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management
Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Nutritional Sciences

Implicit Nationalism and Prejudice: Testing Effects on Behavior
Melissa Ferguson, Psychology
Funded with generous support by the President’s Council of Cornell Women

Strengthening the State: Understanding Citizens’ Willingness to Pay Taxes for Public Safety
Gustavo Flores-Macias, Government

Comedy and Society in Antiquity
Michael Fontaine, Classics

News Evidence and Political Behavior
Adam Seth Levine, Government

The Employment Effects of Green Investment: the Case of Solar and Wind Electricity Generation
Shanjun Li, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Partial Identification and Statistical Decisions: A Conference

Francesca Molinari, Economics
Jörg Stoye, Economics

Support for Organizing a Conference: “Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas 7”
Sarah Murray, Linguistics

Implementation Research for Global Nutrition: Opportunities for the Social Sciences at Cornell

David Pelletier, Nutritional Sciences

Explaining Price Dispersion in Online Auctions with Simple Frictions

Henry Schneider, Economics

Intervening in American Families’ Busyness: Marrying Anthropological Understanding with IT Design
Phoebe Sengers, Information Science and Science & Technology Studies

Ethical Technologies of Corporate Rule: A Mining Company in Postauthoritarian Indonesia

Marina Welker, Anthropology

Rethinking Development: Debating New Directions in a Time of Crisis

Wendy Wolford, Development Sociology

Applying Discourse Semantics and Pragmatics to Narrative Images: A Study of Stone Reliefs, Miniatures, Cave Paintings, and Temple Sculpture
Dorit Abusch, Linguistics

Natural language and pictorial narratives both convey information about a sequence of events. Recently, there has been an interest in applying technical frameworks from natural language semantics and pragmatics to pictorial narratives. In the proposed research, this methodology is applied to Indian pictorial narratives including temple reliefs and cave paintings, focusing on temporal relations and issues of co-reference. In support of this research project, funding is requested for a datagathering trip to India.

Update: Data-gathering trips in India were made in winter 2011-2012 and winter 2012-2013, with visits to archeological sites, temples, and museums. Research focused on the semantics of co-reference, including co-reference in continuous and conflated narratives, where multiple temporally separate events are depicted in a single picture. Results have been presented at the Visual Narrative: an Interdisciplinary Workshop (UCLA, 2012), the conference Sinn and Bedeutung (Paris, 2012), and at linguistics, cognitive science, and philosphy colloquia at Frankfurt, Gottingen, IIT Delhi, Rutgers, Stanford, and USC. A paper on the work is published in the Proceedings of SuB 17. Material collected will be used in a course Language and Image in Spring 2014.

Women, Sustainable Development and Food Sovereignty/Security in a Changing World
Cynthia Bowman, Law

The purpose of this international and interdisciplinary conference is to bring together activists and scholars from different areas of the world – Africa, Asia, Latin American, the Mediterranean region, and the U.S., including Native Americans – to present and discuss grassroots projects that have involved women in meaningful change to promote sustainable development and to publish a report on the conference.

Update: The funds from the ISS small grant were used in partial support of a conference on Women, Sustainable Development, and Food Sovereignty/Security in a Changing World, held at Cornell Law School on March 30-31, 2012. The conference brought together scholars and activists who had been involved in or had studied local, grass-roots projects of women working on sustainable development, including representatives from Nepal, Tunisia, India, Bangladesh, Latin America, the Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, and Native American cultures.  After discussing their ideas and visions for women and sustainable development and sharing their own experiences with women-led sustainable development projects, participants agreed that we had only begun to explore these important issues and committed to continue our discussions in the future.

Disentangling the Building from Behavior in Residential Energy Efficiency
Howard Chong, Hotel Administration

This research looks to conduct energy audits, initially for approximately 20 homes, in California to disentangle the impacts of behavior and buildings in residential energy efficiency. In my previous research titled “Building Vintage and Electricity Use”, I made the startling discovery using utility billing data that, controlling for building size and income, new buildings used more electricity for summer air conditioning than older buildings in an area of southern California. This runs counter to what is expected; newer buildings should have lower air conditioning costs because they have newer technologies and meet higher standards for energy efficiency. Unfortunately, detailed characteristics of the buildings and occupant behavior were not available, so the mechanism of this phenomenon could not be detected. I hypothesize three main possible mechanisms are that (H1) technology has increased, but behavior changes have overwhelmed them, (H2) technology has increased, but other building attributes have overwhelmed them, or (H3) the technology was not properly installed and hence is not performing as expected. By conducting energy audits of approximately 20 homes, this research will uncover the mechanism by disentangling occupant behavior (e.g., intensity of air conditioning use) from building characteristics (e.g., such as insulation and window/wall ratio).

Update: Initial work was leveraged to apply for a $1M grant. The project’s goal has been to disentangle occupant behavior from building characteristics. In California, a government program was initiated to provide free audits. This program collected detailed information about building characteristics through blower door tests, thermal pictures, and facade pictures. I am working on securing this rich set of building information. On behavior, I have developed a tool using internet-enabled thermostats to track at a 10-minute interval the temperature and HVAC usage of a building. This directly monitors occupant behavior and has potential to characterize building thermal performance. Using preliminary results, I have engaged stakeholders, construction companies, and policymakers; their collective opinion is that Hypothesis 3 is correct: the technology was not properly installed and hence not performing as expected. A conclusive result requires more research. Leveraging these early findings, the ISS grant has helped me team up with 3 engineering faculty to submit a $1M NSF grant and a smaller seed grant to Cornell’s Atkinson Center for Sustainable Future.

Strengthening the Case for Evidence-Based Policy for Development: Contextualized Causal
Inference and the Importance of Mechanism 

Mark Constas, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management and Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Nutritional Sciences

Over the past decade, the demand for evidence-based policy has grown significantly across a number of sectors (e.g., health, education, social welfare). More recently, evidence-based policy has received attention in the field of international development. Policy innovations are often motivated by an interest in improving outcomes, thus the demand for causally oriented evidence for development has increased.  In the body of work on evidence-based policy, one area that is not well addressed concerns the linkages between the realities of policy contexts and the analytics of causal inference.  In recognition of this knowledge gap, the purpose of the present project is to the explore aspects of policy contexts that should be taken into account as researchers model and test causal inferences that inform development initiatives. The goals of the project will be pursued by conducting a focused literature review on contextualized causal inference for development and by holding a small conference designed to foster a critical dialogue between policy makers and researchers whose work is centered on problems of development.  These two activities will support the overall aim of the project to offer a new theoretical perspective on causal inference, a perspective that is designed to strengthen the way in which researchers concerned with development policy generate and test their evidentiary claims.

Update: The desire to draw conclusions from research that satisfy the standards of rigorous inference and meet the contextually based needs of practitioners is a longstanding challenge of applied research. In response to this challenge, the ISS project on evidence-based policy will hold a focused one day conference in September of 2013. Participants at the conference will include individuals from federal agencies, international non-governmental agencies, and academic researchers. Using food security and poverty alleviation as the topics of interest, participants at the conference will discuss the challenges associated with building causal models that are empirically testable and programmatically relevant.

Implicit Nationalism and Prejudice: Testing Effects on Behavior
Melissa Ferguson, Psychology

How do the ideals and values associated with a nation influence its citizens? On a daily basis, the ethos of a nation is invoked in public discourse concerning current events, policies, scandals, and crises. People commonly express allegiance to national values and ideas, even citing them as reasons to die for their country (e.g., Gellner, 2006). And yet, despite a voluminous literature in the social sciences on how national values might influence the citizenry in both subtle and obvious ways (e.g., Billig, 1995), there is scarce empirical work revealing exactly how and when that happens. In collaboration with my colleagues around the world (in the United States, Israel, Italy, Russia), I have been examining the extent to which information associated in memory with a nation can automatically influence citizens’ attitudes, beliefs, and behavior (e.g., Carter, Ferguson, & Hassin, in press; Carter, Ferguson, & Hassin, 2011; Ferguson & Hassin, 2007; Hassin, Ferguson, Kardosh, Porter, & Carter, 2009). Our current project tests the effects of automatic (i.e., non-conscious, unintentional) American nationalism for intergroup relations. Our preliminary findings show that incidental, everyday exposure to American cues significantly increases prejudice and bias toward ethnic outgroups, even though people do not know about or condone such effects. The current proposal contains studies that will test whether this prejudicial effect extends to important decisions and behavior, for example in the upcoming United States Presidential Election in November 2012. With support from ISS, I will be able to significantly advance this work, with the end objective being a multi-disciplinary, collaborative research grant submission to a federal grant agency, as well as a submission of an ISS theme project in collaboration with faculty here at Cornell. This project was in part funded by the PCCW.

Update: These funds have allowed the PI and her collaborators to conduct extensive testing of their ideas concerning implicit effects of nationalist symbols on inter-group relations and bias.  In multiple experiments conducted in Fall 2012, they replicated and extended their previous finding that subtle exposure to American cues (e.g., the national flag) increases subsequent prejudice toward racial and ethnic outgroups.  This included a massive online study involving people’s voting behavior in the 2012 Presidential election.  The PI identified circumstances in which these effects of American cues on prejudice do not emerge (e.g., when people are first reminded of widely admired and respected racial outgroup members).  The findings from this funded research were the basis for a recent federal grant application at NSF, which has been awarded (2012). ISS’ Small Grant PI, Melissa Ferguson, Finds Secret Keeping Exhausting (2013), CIE faculty fellow Melissa Ferguson shows that first impressions can be reversed (2015)

Strengthening the State: Understanding Citizens’ Willingness to Pay Taxes for Public Safety
Gustavo Flores-Macias, Government

Mounting crime and violence in the last 20 years have steadily undermined the quality of democracy in Latin America. Governments of all political stripes have struggled to find the resources necessary to improve the provision of public safety, one of states’ most fundamental tasks. A crucial challenge to achieving this goal is governments’ inability to extract adequate levels of resources from society. In other words, why are states often unable to levy taxes in the pursuit of public safety? This study seeks to answer that question by addressing: 1) the factors behind people’s willingness to pay taxes towards the improvement of security conditions, and 2) their preferred type of tax. This research will make both theoretical and empirical contributions. Drawing on the literature linking individuals’ willingness to pay taxes with the quality and promimity of such public goods as roads and clinics, this study will theorize about its applications to the sphere of public safety. It will then test resulting hypotheses using original survey research conducted in two countries with high levels but different types of violence: Colombia and Mexico. Lying at the intersection of the fields of public finance, behavioral economics, and political science, the findings of this study will serve as a foundation for a larger grant application to fund region-wide research on state capacity in Latin America.

Update: The first part of this research resulted in the publication of “Financing Security through Elite Taxation,” in June 2012, as part of the International Center for Taxation and Development Working Paper Series. This component of the research develops the theoretical expectations regarding the nexus between public safety, elites, and taxation, and evaluates them empirically in the context of Colombia’s experience. Its findings point to the importance of economic crises, government-business linkages, and perceptions of the quality of public goods as key factors behind elites’ willingness to pay taxes. The second component, which seeks to draw on evidence from the Mexican case based on individual level survey data, is scheduled to take place this summer. Other media updates: Flores-Macias studies Colombian security tax on country’s elite (2015)

Comedy and Society in Antiquity
Michael Fontaine, Classics

Classics—the study of the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome—is one of those strange disciplines that manage to get all kinds of people in the room, including sociologists, and sometimes we come up with neat new ideas. This is why I am applying for funds to travel to an important interdisciplinary conference at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, where I have been invited to debate and defend views about the social stratification of theater audiences in ancient Rome that I published in a 2010 book. My invitation to the conference follows directly on my book, which has sparked an unexpected but exciting and contentious conversation in my field. The opportunity to present at the conference will offer a high-level venue to refine my views and spend several days discussing my research with an entirely new group of interdisciplinary experts while I complete work on a comprehensive new scholarly article on the question. The ultimate goal, which will require continuing research, is to integrate the multiple approaches to determine more accurately whether, and to what extent, elite social classes associated in public state festivals with lower status individuals, and thus whether the political content of the theater scripts exercised some influence on Rome’s foreign relations during its military expansions in the late Republic (2nd c. BC).

Update: The paper was a tremendous success. The controversial topic attracted the organizers’ interset and was promoted to a keynote position at the conference, ensuring a wide audience. the discussion that followed was both extensive and productive, with scholars from various fields of expertise offering challenges, clarifications, and amplifications of the argument. Particular points of debate were assumptions inherentin the notions of urban elitism and how thse can be demonstrated through such evidence as exists in literature. Research now moves closer to a final published form.

News Evidence and Political Behavior
Adam Seth Levine, Government

When covering news stories, news outlets rely on a variety of types of evidence to support their points. Past work in political communication focuses on three major types: statistical indicators, elite strategy, and human-interest stories. Although several authors have identified and compared these three types, there has been no systematic analysis identifying who is exposed to which types and what effect such exposure has on their political opinions and behaviors. As part of a broad research agenda covering this topic, we hypothesize that certain forms of evidence will affect certain people and not others, thereby altering the basis on which people evaluate politics and hold their elected officials responsible. These differences are particularly consequential given that certain forms of evidence tend to be more negative than other types. In this proposal we are requesting funds from the ISS to conduct one initial study to examine these effects. This study, along with two other initial studies we’ve already completed, will provide the basis for external funding applications described in this proposal.

Updates: Designed to examine the political consequences of how economic information is conveyed in the news, a nationally-representative survey experiment was conducted in 2012. We found that people’s political evaluations (including their perceptions of the state of the economy and the President) depend upon an interaction of the evidence used to describe economic trends and the recipient’s degree of political information. Those with high levels of information are more likely to trust and be persuaded by news articles that use statistics and statistical trends, whereas those with less information trust and are more persuaded by articles that use human interest stories to document economic news (2013). Press coverage includes: ISS’ Fall 2011 Small Grant Awardee, Adam Seth Levine, is Part of Study Highlighting the Joy of Voting Early (2014).

The Employment Effects of Green Investment: the Case of Solar and Wind Electricity
Generation

Shanjun Li, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Policies that generate investment in green technologies—wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV), and the like—are often advocated for the twin benefits of job creation and pollution reduction. Although reports have proliferated on either side, direct empirical evidence of these effects is scarce. Most studies have estimated the employment effects of hypothetical policies using an“input-output” approach, which estimates the gross, rather than net, employment gains to the economy. Our project aims to estimate net employment effects based on actual labor market outcomes. Using employment data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) from 1990-2009 and investment information on wind, solar PV, and natural gas from 2000-2009, we examine national and regional employment effects at two stages: employment associated with the installation and operation of wind, solar and natural gas generators; and employment associated with the manufacturing of key components in these generators.

Update: During 2013, the major activities conducted include: 1) examining the policy and non-policy drivers of wind power investment acress states during 1990-2009; 2) comparing employment outcomes between the states with wind investment and those without. For the first activity, data on various policy (such as Renewable Portfolio Standards and tax incentives) and non policy (such as wind resource and demographics) variables were collected at the county or state levels. The analysis shows that Renewable Portfolio Standards have a positive effect on wind investment and the effect is stronger among states with rich wind resources. The second analysis was based on county-level and establishment-level Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data from Bureau of Labor Statistics from 1990-2009 together with wind power investment data, county and state-level demographics. The analysis has yet to yield robust results that could be reported or published publicly. The results obtained so far are noisy and not robust across different model specifications. Additional diagnostics and analysis are still under way.

Partial Identification and Statistical Decisions: A Conference
Francesca Molinari, Economics and Jörg Stoye, Economics

We propose to conduct a one-and-a-half-day conference on Partial Identification and Statistical Decisions that will bring roughly 7 rising junior and 3 senior researchers to Cornell. The Department of Economics already enjoys substantial strength in this area, in which the co-PIs have published successfully. The proposed conference will further strengthen this position. It should place Cornell at the forefront of a rapidly developing literature which may have substantial impact on econometric practice in the near- to mid-term future.

Update: This conference was held on April 27-28, 2012, in the ILR Conference Center. Participants included, Cornell faculty members and graduate students, as well as national and international speakers; the conference was based on 45 minutes presentations of papers, followed by a 15 minutes discussion of each paper lead by a pre-assigned discussant. Research-in-progress on partial identification and statistical decisions was presented and discussed by Debopam Bhattacharya (Oxford, UK), Keisuke Hirano (Arizona), Hiroaki Kaido (BU), Max Kasy (Harvard), Toru Kitagawa (University College London, UK), Chuck Manski (Northwestern), Konrad Menzel (NYU), Denis Nekipelov (Berkeley), Jack Porter (Wisconsin), Kevin Song (UBC, Canada), Aleksey Tetenov (Collegio Carlo Alberto, Italy).  Substantial progress was made on the common understanding of the problems studied, and several of the presented papers have been submitted or accepted for journal publication.

Support for Organizing a Conference: “Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the
Americas 7″
Sarah Murray, Linguistics

We propose to organize a conference, “Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas 7” (SULA 7), to take place at Cornell in Spring 2012, May 4th through 6th. The goal of this international, interdisciplinary conference is to bring together researchers who work on languages or dialects spoken in the Americas which do not have an established tradition of work in formal semantics. Drawing on several disciplines, including Linguistics, Philosophy, Psychology, Cognitive Science, American Indian Studies, Latin American Studies, among others, SULA includes presentations on variety of phenomena from a variety of theoretical perspectives. However, researchers presenting at SULA are united by an interest in meaning in natural language, with a focus on understudied languages. One of the primary strengths of this conference is that the presented research typically involves primary fieldwork or experimentation as well as high-level theoretical analysis.

Update: This conference was held on May 4-6,  2012. It was extremely successful, with three days of top quality research presentations and comments.   This interdisciplinary conference, co-sponsored by Cornell Linguistics, Philosophy, and the American Indian Program, brought together researchers from across the Americas united by an interest in how meaning in expressed crosslinguistically. Papers from the conference will be published in the series University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics, as were previous conferences in this series. For more information,  see the conference website.

Implementation Research for Global Nutrition: Opportunities for the Social Sciences at Cornell
David Pelletier, Nutritional Sciences

While the study of policy implementation has a long history in the social sciences, the robust understandings and lessons from such studies have not been widely embraced by recent proponents of evidence‐based policy making and “implementation science” in biomedically‐influenced fields of study and practice. This proposal seeks to bridge this gap in one field: nutrition. This field presently is dominated by an evidence‐centric view of implementation, could benefit from a broader perspective and offers many opportunities for collaboration between social scientists and implementers. The proposal aims to position Cornell as a center of excellence for implementation science in nutrition and attract external funding for such research.

Update: Project funds supported domestic travel during my sabbatical leave to attend scientific meetings and meet with researchers, international donor organizations and non-governmental organizations in relation to implementation science.  These meetings confirmed the increasing salience of implementation or delivery science and the emergence of greater opportunities for engaged research in that area.  As a direct result of this work I became a member of two international committees focusing on this area (one at the NY Academy of Sciences and another at the World Health Organization), was invited to speak at several donor/NGO meetings in Washington, secured a $1M grant from UNICEF in West Africa and published a forward-looking paper in a leading journal in my field (Pelletier, DL, Porter, CM, Aarons, GA, Wuehler, SE and Neufeld, LM. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods and New Approaches. (Advances in Nutrition 4:92-114, 2013).

Explaining Price Dispersion in Online Auctions with Simple Frictions
Henry Schneider, Economics

This proposal is for a study of the determinants of price dispersion on the online auction platform eBay. During the 1990s, the Internet was expected to reduce a consumer’s time and effort costs associated with shopping, perhaps even to the extent that the Law of One Price (the same items from different sellers sell for the same price) might approximately hold. An empirical literature has since established that the Law of One Price fails for Internet commerce. This study seeks to extend this literature to online auctions, where many very similar items are sold from many sellers through the same website. With the rich data that are available for eBay auctions, I aim to identify the specific frictions that are generating price dispersion, and the magnitude of the price dispersion resulting from each, for this important Internet auction. For example, the
titles of the auction listing often contain different words (e.g., “new”) that make the auction less
or more likely to appear in a bidder’s eBay search results, and this makes some auctions easier to
find by bidders than others.

Update: Professor Schneider’s research on this project has led to the successful completion of the working paper titled “Search Costs and Equilibrium Price Dispersion in Auction Markets.” The paper provides a theoretical model that shows how traditional explanations for price dispersion in fixed-price markets (that is, non-auction markets) also applies to auction markets, but through a distinct mechanism, and provides empirical support for the theory using eBay data. ISS funding was instrumental in hiring research support to help with both the theoretical and empirical components of this paper. Professor Schneider recently presented this work at the Northwestern University Conference on Internet Search and Innovation, and visited eBay Research Labs in San Jose, CA to present and discuss his auction research, including this work.

Intervening in American Families’ Busyness: Marrying Anthropological Understanding with IT Design
Phoebe Sengers, Information Science and Science & Technology Studies

The goal of this work is to develop the groundwork for an NSF funding proposal integrating anthropological understandings of families’ busyness as an American cultural phenomenon with the design of new interventions based in information technology (IT). The planned proposal will build on our research group’s experience in coupling social-scientific understanding with IT design, integrating it with the expertise of Prof. Charles Darrah, an anthropologist who has published a landmark study on American busyness. We request limited support for a pilot study and travel funding to meet with Prof. Darrah to plan our NSF grant proposal.

Update: Together with Prof. Charles Darrah, we designed a new method for integrating anthropological understanding with design research, which interleaves and cross-communicates early research findings from each approach. We designed a field study to test this approach with families of varying income levels in the Bay area which would lead to a better understanding of how the ubiquitous use of computing technologies alters families’ construction and experience of busyness, and which would develop new design interventions.  We have developed a full grant proposal to support this work for which we are currently seeking funding.  We also ran a pilot study looking at how “simple living” families in the Ithaca region enacted the values of personal and environmental sustainability in their lives and how this might inform IT design.  A paper on the results of this study will be published at  CHI ’13, a highly competitive conference on human-computer interaction.

Ethical Technologies of Corporate Rule: A Mining Company in Postauthoritarian Indonesia
Marina Welker, Anthropology

This book project is a study of the ethical technologies through which corporations seek to govern dispersed and disparate people, institutions, objects, and environments. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork extending from Newmont Mining Corporation’s Batu Hijau copper and gold mine site on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa to the corporation’s headquarters in Denver. The corporation, and corporate power more broadly, is disaggregated in chapters that explore how ethical technologies promoting human rights, participation, empowerment, sustainability, environmentalism, transparency, accountability, and good governance are developed, implemented, and contested in corporate offices and Sumbawan villages.

Update: The book manuscript is under review at two university presses, and a related article has been submitted to a journal for review. More information on the book can be found here, ISS Small Grant Awardee, Marina Welker, Pens Book Exploring Corporate Effects at an Indonesian Mine.

Rethinking Development: Debating New Directions in a Time of Crisis
Wendy Wolford, Development Sociology

We are requesting funds from the ISS to help support an interdisciplinary conference organized by the Department of Development Sociology on the theme of “Rethinking Development.” We argue that new ideas are desperately needed in the face of seemingly insurmountable contemporary challenges. Global climate change, historic levels of international and intra-national inequality, rising levels of absolute poverty, global food vulnerabilities, traditional energy shortages and associated ecological degradations, global economic stagnation, and political instability, social injustice and mal-distributions of various sorts – all of these demand re-thinking Development and imagining bold new articulations of state, society, market and nature in the future. We hope that this conference will build on and help to generate creative new ideas for such re-thinking.

Update: The Rethinking Development conference was extremely successful, with three full days of high quality presentations and four distinguished keynote speakers. The conference was attended by nearly 200 people, with 84 presentations by an interdisciplinary group of scholars from around the world.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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